There are many options of Birth control . The selection for the choice of birth control depends on how they work , how effective they are whether they give protection from sexually transmitted infection. There are various types of method of contraception hormonal , natural and e.t.c. Let’s have a look at the various methods of birth control.
1.Hormonal Contraceptives for Birth Control ;
Hormonal birth control methods such as the pill, patch, or injectable, work by preventing ovulation, or the release of an egg. Hormonal contraceptives can be used to prevent pregnancy after sex in the form of emergency contraception or the “morning-after pill”. These pills contain a higher dose of hormonal medication than regular contraceptives and are taken within a few days after unprotected sex to prevent fertilization or implantation of an egg. It is important to note that emergency contraception should not be used as a regular form of birth control and does not protect against sexually transmitted infections.
There are several types of hormonal contraceptives available, including:
- Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCs): These are commonly known as “the pill” and contain both estrogen and progestin. They work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to block sperm, and thinning the lining of the uterus. COCs need to be taken daily, preferably at the same time each day, to be effective.
- Progestin-only Pills (POP or Mini Pills): These pills contain only progestin, and they work primarily by thickening cervical mucus and thinning the uterine lining. Unlike COCs, POPs need to be taken at the same time every day, without a break, to maintain their effectiveness.
- Contraceptive Patch: The patch is a small adhesive square that releases estrogen and progestin through the skin into the bloodstream. It is usually applied to the buttocks, abdomen, upper outer arm, or upper torso and is replaced weekly for three weeks, followed by a patch-free week.
- Vaginal Ring: The vaginal ring is a flexible, transparent ring inserted into the vagina, releasing estrogen and progestin. It is left in place for three weeks, followed by a ring-free week. It is effective once inserted correctly.
- Injectable Contraceptives: These are progestin-only injections administered every 12 to 13 weeks. Commonly known as the Depo-Provera shot, it prevents ovulation and thickens cervical mucus.
- Implant: The contraceptive implant is a small, flexible rod placed under the skin of the upper arm. It releases progestin to prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus. It provides protection against pregnancy for up to three years.
It’s important to note that hormonal contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so additional protection like condoms should be used to reduce the risk of STI transmission. Additionally, hormonal contraceptives have potential side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate method of contraception for your specific needs.
An IUD is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional to prevent pregnancy. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are a highly effective form of birth control that work by preventing fertilization or implantation of the fertilized egg. There are two types of IUDs: hormonal and non-hormonal.
Hormonal IUDs contain progestin, a hormone that thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from entering the uterus and thinning the uterine lining to make implantation less likely.
Non-hormonal IUDs are made of copper, which creates an environment toxic to sperm and prevents fertilization. Both types of IUDs are over 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can last for several years before needing to be replaced. They can be inserted by a healthcare provider and are easily reversible when removed. IUDs are a good choice for women who are looking for long-term, highly effective birth control that does not require daily attention. However, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in combination with condoms or other barrier methods to reduce the risk of STIs.
Barrier methods like condoms prevent pregnancy by physically blocking sperm from entering the uterus. Condoms are highly effective in preventing pregnancy when used correctly and consistently. They are a barrier method of contraception that creates a physical barrier between the sperm and the cervix, preventing the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg.
Here are some key points about condoms and their effectiveness:
1. Protection against pregnancy:
2. When used correctly and consistently
3. Condoms have a high rate of effectiveness in preventing pregnancy.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), condoms are 98% effective in preventing pregnancy when used consistently and correctly.
Proper usage: To maximize the effectiveness of condoms, it is important to use them correctly. This involves checking the expiration date, opening the package carefully, placing the condom on an erect penis before any genital contact occurs, leaving a reservoir at the tip to collect semen, and ensuring it remains in place during intercourse.
It’s important to use a new condom for each act of intercourse.
Additional protection: In addition to preventing pregnancy, condoms also provide a barrier that helps reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, it’s important to note that while condoms are highly effective in reducing the risk of many STIs, they may not provide complete protection against all STI’s that can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or lesions not covered by the condom.
Factors affecting effectiveness: The effectiveness of condoms can be influenced by various factors. These include incorrect usage, failure to use them consistently or every time, using expired condoms, not storing them properly, and using oil-based lubricants (which can weaken latex condoms). It is essential to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.
Dual protection: Condoms can be used in combination with other contraceptive methods, such as hormonal contraception (e.g., birth control pills or patches) or intrauterine devices (IUDs), to provide dual protection against both pregnancy and STIs.Remember, while condoms are highly effective, no contraceptive method provides 100% protection against pregnancy or STIs. It’s always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional to discuss your contraceptive options and choose the method that best suits your needs.
Permanent sterilization procedures, such as tubal ligation for women or vasectomy for men, provide permanent contraception by preventing the release of eggs or sperm.
There are two primary methods of sterilization in humans:
- Tubal ligation (for females): Also known as “getting your tubes tied,” tubal ligation involves surgically blocking or sealing the fallopian tubes, which are the pathways through which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus. This prevents sperm from reaching the eggs, effectively sterilizing the woman. Tubal ligation is typically performed through laparoscopic surgery.
- Vasectomy (for males): Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or sealing the vas deferens, which are the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. By blocking the pathway for sperm, vasectomy prevents the sperm from reaching the semen that is ejaculated during sexual intercourse. It is generally considered a permanent form of male sterilization.
Both tubal ligation and vasectomy are considered permanent methods of sterilization, and while it is possible to reverse these procedures, the success rates of reversal vary and are not guaranteed.
It is important to note that decisions regarding sterilization should be carefully considered, as they are typically irreversible and have permanent consequences for an individual’s fertility. It is recommended to discuss the options and implications with a healthcare professional or a specialist in reproductive health before proceeding with sterilization.
Some couples use natural family planning methods, such as tracking Natural Family Planning (NFP), also known as fertility awareness-based methods, is a form of contraception that involves tracking a woman’s menstrual cycle to identify fertile and infertile periods. It relies on understanding the natural signs and symptoms of a woman’s body to determine when she is most likely to conceive.
Here are some key points about natural family planning:
Understanding fertility signs: NFP methods require women to track changes in their menstrual cycle and observe various fertility signs.
These signs include changes in cervical mucus consistency, basal body temperature (BBT), and changes in the cervix itself. By monitoring these signs, women can identify the fertile window—the days when they are most likely to conceive
Fertility awareness: NFP methods rely on women being aware of their fertility status throughout their menstrual cycle. By tracking fertility signs consistently and accurately, women can determine when they are fertile and abstain from sexual intercourse or use alternative contraceptive methods during that time to avoid pregnancy. The effectiveness of NFP methods can vary depending on the specific method used and the level of user compliance.
When used correctly and consistently, some studies suggest that certain NFP methods can have a comparable effectiveness to other methods of contraception, such as condoms or hormonal methods. However, it’s important to note that NFP requires a high level of commitment, understanding, and careful tracking to be effective.Learning and education:
To use NFP effectively, it’s crucial for individuals or couples to receive proper education and training from a qualified instructor. Learning NFP typically involves understanding the menstrual cycle, tracking fertility signs, and interpreting the gathered data accurately. Education can be obtained through classes, workshops, or working with a healthcare professional experienced in NFP methods.
Varied methods: There are different types of NFP methods available, including the Standard Days Method, the Symptothermal Method, the Billings Ovulation Method, and the Creighton Model. Each method has its own specific rules and guidelines for tracking fertility signs and determining fertile and infertile periods.It’s important to note that NFP methods require careful commitment, communication, and consistency between partners.
While natural family planning can be an effective form of contraception for some couples, it may not be suitable for everyone. It’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or NFP instructor to determine if NFP is the right choice for you and to receive proper guidance on its correct implementation.g ovulation and abstaining from sex during the woman’s fertile period, to prevent pregnancy.
Also known as morning-after pills or post-coital contraception, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure. They are designed to be used as soon as possible after unprotected sex, ideally within the first 72 hours, although some types can be effective up to five days (120 hours) after intercourse.
There are two main types of emergency contraceptives available:
Hormonal emergency contraceptives: These contain a synthetic version of the hormone progestin or a combination of progestin and estrogen. They work by inhibiting or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization of the egg, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg. Hormonal emergency contraceptives can be obtained over the counter at most pharmacies without a prescription, although age restrictions may apply in some countries.
Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This non-hormonal option involves the insertion of a copper IUD into the uterus within a specific timeframe after unprotected intercourse. The copper IUD creates an inhospitable environment for sperm, preventing fertilization, and can also affect the implantation of a fertilized egg. This method requires a healthcare professional for insertion but provides long-term contraception beyond the emergency situation. It’s important to note that emergency contraceptives are not intended to be used as a regular form of contraception.
Ulipristal acetate: Sold under the brand name Ella, this medication is also a type of hormone emergency contraceptive that works by blocking the effects of progesterone.
They are meant for emergency situations and should not replace ongoing contraceptive methods. If you have concerns about contraception or have questions about emergency contraceptives, it’s best to consult with a healthcare professional or visit a sexual health clinic for personalized advice contraception: Emergency contraception (Plan B) may be used after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure to prevent pregnancy, but should not be relied upon as a primary method of contraception.